1. True or false? The physical layer is only concerned with wired network connections.

2. True or false? When a frame is encoded by the physical layer, all bits are sent over the media at the same time.

3. The physical layer of the receiving device passes bits up to which higher level layer?

4. What PDU is received by the physical layer for encoding and transmission?

5. Which media uses patterns of microwaves to represent bits?

6. Which media uses patterns of light to represent bits?

6. Which media uses patterns of light to represent bits?

7. Which of these is the name for the capacity of a medium to carry data?

8. Which of these is a measure of the transfer of bits across the media?

9. Which of the following attaches antennas to wireless devices? It can also be bundled with fiber- optic cabling for two-way data transmission.

10. Which of the following counters EMI and RFI by using shielding techniques and special connectors?

11. Which of the following is the most common network media?

12. Which of the following terminates with BNC, N type and F type connectors?

13. Which of the following fiber-optic cable types can help data travel approximately 500 meters?

14. Which of the following fiber-optic cable types use light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a data light source transmitter?

15. Which of the following fiber-optic cable types use lasers in a single stream as a data light source transmitter?

16. Which of the following fiber-optic cable types is used to connect long-distance telephony and cable TV applications?

17. Which of the following fiber-optic cable types can travel approximately 100 km?

18. Which of the following fiber-optic cable types is used within a campus network?

19. True or false. Wireless is not well suited for enterprise networks.

20. True or false. Wireless LANs operate in full-duplex allowing all devices to send or receive data at the same time so the number of users does not impact performance.

21. Which of the following wireless standards is best suited for industrial and IoT environments?

22. Which of the following wireless standards is used for Personal Area Networks (PANs) and allows devices to communicate over distances of 1 to 100 meters?

23. A network administrator is troubleshooting connectivity issues on a server. Using a tester, the administrator notices that the signals generated by the server NIC are distorted and not usable. In which layer of the OSI model is the error categorized?

The NIC has responsibilities in both Layer 1 and Layer 2. The NIC encodes the frame as a series of signals that are transmitted onto the local media. This is the    responsibility of the physical layer of the OSI model. The signal could be in the form of electrical, optical, or radio waves.

24. What type of cable is used to connect a workstation serial port to a Cisco router console port?

UTP cable wire pairs can be terminated in different configurations for use in different applications. To use a UTP cable for consoling into a Cisco router from a PC serial port, it must be terminated as a rollover or console cable.

25. Why are two strands of fiber used for a single fiber optic connection?

Light can only travel in one direction down a single strand of fiber. In order to allow for full-duplex communication two strands of fiber must be connected between each device.

26. Which procedure is used to reduce the effect of crosstalk in copper cables?

In copper cables, crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of a signal on one wire interfering with the signal in an adjacent wire. Twisting opposing circuit wire pairs together can effectively cancel the crosstalk. The other options are effective measures to counter the negative effects of EMI and RFI, but not crosstalk.

27. What is one advantage of using fiber optic cabling rather than copper cabling?

Copper cabling is usually cheaper and easier to install than fiber optic cabling. However, fiber cables generally have a much greater signaling range than copper.

28. A network administrator is designing a new network infrastructure that includes both wired and wireless connectivity. Under which situation would a wireless connection be recommended?

When the end-user devices need mobility to connect to the network, wireless is recommended. If an end-user device only has an Ethernet NIC, the user will only be able to use Ethernet cabling. If RFI is an issue, wireless is not recommended. An end-user device that requires a dedicated connection for performance would perform better with a dedicated Ethernet cable.

29. Which type of UTP cable is used to connect a PC to a switch port?

A rollover cable is a Cisco proprietary cable used to connect to a router or switch console port. A straight-through (also called patch) cable is usually used to interconnect a host to a switch and a switch to a router. A crossover cable is used to interconnect similar devices together, for example, between two switches, two routers, and two hosts.

30. What is the definition of bandwidth?

Bandwidth is the measure of the capacity of a network medium to carry data. It is the amount of data that can move between two points on the network over a specific period of time, typically one second.

31. Which statement correctly describes frame encoding?

Frame encoding converts a stream of data bits into a predefined code that is recognized by both the sender and receiver. These codes are used for a variety of purposes, such as distinguishing data bits from control bits, and identifying the beginning and end of a frame.

32. What is a characteristic of UTP cabling?

Cladding and immunization from electrical hazards are characteristics for fiber- optic cabling. A woven copper braid or metallic foil is used as a shield for the inner coaxial cable conductor. Cancellation is a property of UTP cabling where two wires are located adjacent to one another so each magnetic field cancels out the adjacent magnetic field.

33. A wireless LAN is being deployed inside the new one room office that is occupied by the park ranger. The office is located at the highest part of the national park. After network testing is complete, the technicians report that the wireless LAN signal is occasionally affected by some type of interference. What is a possible cause of the signal distortion?

Wireless LAN connectivity is not affected by trees or the elevation of the equipment. Because this is a one room office in an isolated area, there will not be a large number of wireless devices or source of interference operating in the immediate vicinity. The use of a microwave oven could result in signal interference.

34. What is the purpose of the OSI physical layer?

The physical layer is responsible for transmitting the actual signals across the physical media as bits. Exchanging frames, controlling media access, and performing error detection are all functions of the data link layer.

35. Which characteristic describes crosstalk?

EMI and RFI can distort network signals because of interference from fluorescent lights or electric motors. Attenuation results in deterioration of the network signal as it travels along copper cabling. Wireless devices can experience loss of signals because of excessive distances from a access point, but this is not crosstalk. Crosstalk is the disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of the signal carried on an adjacent wire within the same cable.

36. What is indicated by the term throughput?

Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Throughput is affected by a number of factors such as, EMI and latency, so it rarely matches the specified bandwidth for a network medium. The throughput measurement includes user data bits and other data bits, such as overhead, acknowledging, and encapsulation. The measure of the usable data transferred across the media is called goodput.

37. Which standards organization oversees development of wireless LAN standards?

IANA oversees the management of IP address allocation and domain names. ISO is the largest developer of international networking standards and is famous for the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. TIA focuses on communication standards. The IEEE 802 standards are many, but the ones that affect an entry-level network professional are Ethernet (802.3), wireless LANs (802.11), and wireless PANs (802.15).