On a Windows host, either the route print or netstat -r commands can be used to display the host routing table. The show ip route command is used on a router to display its routing table. The netstat –s command is used to display per-protocol statistics. The tracert command is used to display the path that a packet travels to its destination.
22. What information is added during encapsulation at OSI Layer 3?
The data link layer indicates to the network layer the MTU for the medium that is
being used. The network layer uses that information to determine how large the packet can be
when it is forwarded. When packets are received on one medium and forwarded on a medium
with a smaller MTU, the network layer device can fragment the packet to accommodate the
24. Which characteristic describes an IPv6 enhancement over IPv4?
A. Both IPv4 and IPv6 support authentication, but only IPv6 supports privacy capabilities.
B. IPv6 addresses are based on 128-bit flat addressing as opposed to IPv4 which is based on 32-bit hierarchical addressing.
C. The IPv6 header is simpler than the IPv4 header is, which improves packet handling.
D. The IPv6 address space is four times bigger than the IPv4 address space.
IPv6 addresses are based on 128-bit hierarchical addressing, and the IPv6 header
has been simplified with fewer fields, improving packet handling. IPv6 natively supports
authentication and privacy capabilities as opposed to IPv4 that needs additional features to
support those. The IPv6 address space is many times bigger than IPv4 address space.
25. Which statement accurately describes a characteristic of IPv4?
A. An IPv4 header has fewer fields than an IPv6 header has.
IPv4 has a 32-bit address space, providing 4,294,967,296 unique addresses, but
only 3.7 billion are assignable, a limit due to address reservation for multicasting and
testing. IPv4 does not provide native support for IPsec. IPv6 has a simplified header with fewer
fields than IPv4 has.
26. When a router receives a packet, what information must be examined in order for the packet to be
forwarded to a remote destination?
When connectionless protocols are in use at a lower layer of the OSI model, upper-level protocols may need to work together on the sending and receiving hosts to account for and retransmit lost data. In some cases, this is not necessary, because for some applications a certain amount of data loss is tolerable.
30. What was the reason for the creation and implementation of IPv6?
A.To provide more address space in the Internet Names Registry
IPv4 addressing space is exhausted by the rapid growth of the Internet and the
devices connected to the Internet. IPv6 expands the IP addressing space by increasing the
address length from the 32 bits to 128 bits, which should provide sufficient addresses for future
Internet growth needs for many years to come.
31. Which information is used by routers to forward a data packet toward its destination?
ICMPv6, like IPv4, sends a Time Exceeded message if the router cannot forward an
IPv6 packet because the packet has expired. However, the IPv6 packet does not have a TTL
field. Instead, it uses the Hop Limit field to determine if the packet has expired.