1. Which OSI layer sends segments to be encapsulated in an IPv4 or IPv6 packet?

2. Which layer is responsible for taking an IP packet and preparing it for transmission over the communications medium?

3. What is the term for splitting up an IP packet when forwarding it from one medium to another medium with a smaller MTU?

4. Which delivery method does not guarantee that the packet will be delivered fully without errors?

5. What are the two most commonly referenced fields in an IPv4 packet header that indicate where the packet is coming from and where it is going? (Choose two.)

6. Which statement is correct about IPv4 packet header fields?

7. Which field is used to detect corruption in the IPv4 header?

8. Which field includes common values such as ICMP (1), TCP (6), and UDP (17)?

9. Which three options are major issues associated with IPv4? (Choose three.)

10. Which two options are improvements provided by IPv6 as compared to IPv4? (Choose two.)

11. Which is true of the IPv6 header?

12. Which is true of the IPv6 packet header?

13. Which statement about host forwarding decisions is true?

14. Which default gateway statement is true?

15. Which two commands could be entered on a Windows host to view its IPv4 and IPv6 routing table? (Choose two.)

16. What is the command used on a Cisco IOS router to view the routing table?

17. What does a code of “O” indicate next to a route in the routing table?

18. This type of route is also known as a gateway of last resort.

19. Which is a characteristic of static routes?

20. True or False? A router can be configured with a combination of both static routes and a dynamic routing protocol.

21. Which command can be used on a Windows host to display the routing table?

On a Windows host, either the route print or netstat -r commands can be used to display the host routing table. The show ip route command is used on a router to display its routing table. The netstat –s command is used to display per-protocol statistics. The tracert command is used to display the path that a packet travels to its destination.

22. What information is added during encapsulation at OSI Layer 3?

IP is a Layer 3 protocol. Layer 3 devices can open the Layer 3 header to inspect the Layer 3 header which contains IP-related information including the source and destination IP addresses.

23. How does the network layer use the MTU value?

The data link layer indicates to the network layer the MTU for the medium that is being used. The network layer uses that information to determine how large the packet can be when it is forwarded. When packets are received on one medium and forwarded on a medium with a smaller MTU, the network layer device can fragment the packet to accommodate the smaller size.

24. Which characteristic describes an IPv6 enhancement over IPv4?​

IPv6 addresses are based on 128-bit hierarchical addressing, and the IPv6 header has been simplified with fewer fields, improving packet handling. IPv6 natively supports authentication and privacy capabilities as opposed to IPv4 that needs additional features to support those. The IPv6 address space is many times bigger than IPv4 address space.

25. Which statement accurately describes a characteristic of IPv4?

IPv4 has a 32-bit address space, providing 4,294,967,296 unique addresses, but only 3.7 billion are assignable, a limit due to address reservation for multicasting and testing. IPv4 does not provide native support for IPsec. IPv6 has a simplified header with fewer fields than IPv4 has.

26. When a router receives a packet, what information must be examined in order for the packet to be forwarded to a remote destination?

When a router receives a packet, it examines the destination address of the packet and uses the routing table to search for the best path to that network.

27. A computer has to send a packet to a destination host in the same LAN. How will the packet be sent?

If the destination host is in the same LAN as the source host, there is no need for a default gateway. A default gateway is needed if a packet needs to be sent outside the LAN.

28. Which IPv4 address can a host use to ping the loopback interface?

A host can ping the loopback interface by sending a packet to a special IPv4 address within the network

29. When a connectionless protocol is in use at a lower layer of the OSI model, how is missing data detected and retransmitted if necessary?

When connectionless protocols are in use at a lower layer of the OSI model, upper-level protocols may need to work together on the sending and receiving hosts to account for and retransmit lost data. In some cases, this is not necessary, because for some applications a certain amount of data loss is tolerable.

30. What was the reason for the creation and implementation of IPv6?

IPv4 addressing space is exhausted by the rapid growth of the Internet and the devices connected to the Internet. IPv6 expands the IP addressing space by increasing the address length from the 32 bits to 128 bits, which should provide sufficient addresses for future Internet growth needs for many years to come.

31. Which information is used by routers to forward a data packet toward its destination?

The destination IP address is the IP address for the receiving device. This IP address is used by routers to forward the packet to its destination.

32. Which field in an IPv4 packet header will typically stay the same during its transmission?

The value in the Destination Address field in an IPv4 header will stay the same during its transmission. The other options might change during its transmission.

33. Which field in an IPv6 packet is used by the router to determine if a packet has expired and should be dropped?

ICMPv6, like IPv4, sends a Time Exceeded message if the router cannot forward an IPv6 packet because the packet has expired. However, the IPv6 packet does not have a TTL field. Instead, it uses the Hop Limit field to determine if the packet has expired.